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Prevalence of Newcastle disease virus in Ukraine in the period 2011-April 2014

Prevalence of Newcastle disease virus in Ukraine in the period 2011-April 2014

Newcastle disease viruses ( NDV) have been placed in the genusAvulavirus, sub-family Paramyxovirinae, familyParamyxoviridae. NDV, a virus that is able to infect over 240 species of birds and is included in List A of the Office International des Epizooties. The fast development of poultry industry and insufficient management are the most actual factors which can cause the fast spread of NDV in Ukraine.

Ivashchenko Olha 1,2 , Rudenko Anna1,2 , Polischuk Valeriy2 , Budzanivska Iryna2 , Ivashchenko Iryna3

1 LTD «Center of Veterinary Diagnostics», Kyiv 01601, Ukraine; 2 Kyiv Taras Shevchenko National University, Department of Virology, Kyiv 01601, Ukraine; 3 Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, Zhytomir 10014

Keywords: Newcastle disease virus, prevalence, complex diagnostics, Ukraine

Newcastle disease viruses ( NDV) have been placed in the genusAvulavirus, sub-family Paramyxovirinae, familyParamyxoviridae. NDV, a virus that is able to infect over 240 species of birds and is included in List A of the Office International des Epizooties. The fast development of poultry industry and insufficient management are the most actual factors which can cause the fast spread of NDV in Ukraine.

The aim of our study was to find out the number of clinical manifestation in herds and study the prevalence of NDV in Ukraine. Our study were carried out in the period 2011- April 2014. Samples from 24 regions and Crimea Peninsula were sent for the research. We analyzed 1496 samples, which we collected in 92 flocks of Ukraine with a variable number of birds experiencing respiratory signs, egg production failures, enteritis or nervous signs. Samples were analyzed by histology method for detection the character for NDV lesion in trachea, lungs, brain, stomach, intestine, spleen, kidney and liver.

In the case of NDV infection epithelium of the mucous membrane of the trachea was absent. In the submucosal membrane of the trachea revealed significant hemorrhage, infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages. We also observed signs of necrotic changes in submucosal glands membrane of the trachea. In the lung, liver and kidney was detected edema of the endothelial cells of vessels. In some cases we also detected necrosis of the endothelial cells of vessels in these organs. In case of nervous clinical signs we observed also perivascular lymphocytic infiltration in brain. In such cases we performed histopathology analysis one more time within 14 days to exclude Marek’s disease as one of the possible cause of changes in brain. In 42 % of NDV positive cases we also observed depletion of spleen. However, we need to note that this lesion is not specific and could occur due to the influence of other factors. The next step of our study was confirmation of the histology result by PCR.

The amount of NDV positive samples is 1051 , which is nearly 70%. NDV was detected in farms from 21 regions of Ukraine and in Crimea Peninsula. The circulation of NDV wasn’t detected only in Poltava, Chernihiv and Ternopil regions. We want to note that the number of samples that we examined in these regions were insufficient for analysis of the situation and therefore, more research is needed. We compared our data from 2012 ( 43% infected) with our results from 2013 ( 52% positive samples) and detected an increasing number NDV outbreaks. During the last 5 years we used the same method and the same PCR test system for this research so we can make some deductions about the tendency of NDV to spread.

Also we need to add that in 372 samples the specific for NDV mild histopathological lesion were observed, but PCR was negative for NDV. In such cases we made PCR of smears from the walls and cages of poultry houses and the PCR was positive for NDV. Thus, it was shown the circulation of the pathogen in flocks and the necessity to control the situation.

Лаборатория гистологии
Лаборатория гистологии